What are stem cells?
Stem cells are natural healers that we all possess since birth. Just imagine if you were to get a cut. Your body doesn't need any instructions to fix and heal it. It does so by utilizing the power of stem cells. After an injury, local stem cells in the vicinity and those present in the bloodstream migrate to the injured area through a process called homing. They then begin their work of cell replication and repair, allowing your skin to progress through different stages of wound healing and eventually return to its normal state. This exemplifies the incredible function of stem cells.
Throughout our bodies, cell death and injury occur constantly. Stem cells act as diligent soldiers, serving us without any recognition, and eventually perishing in their service. They silently carry out their best work to ensure the overall functioning of our bodies. For instance, when we engage in sports and accidentally injure the cartilage of our knee, stem cells arrive to repair the damage. If we consume excessive amounts of salmon and accumulate mercury, which can be toxic to our kidney cells, stem cells step in to fix the issue. Even when we subject our lungs to various toxins from smoking cigarettes, stem cells play a crucial role in repairing the damaged lung cells. This remarkable ability to naturally heal and maintain our body's functionality is the fundamental purpose of stem cells.
Aging Stem Cell, Aging Body
Stem cells can also experience fatigue and aging. Do you know ? If we were to cut the skin of a fetus in the womb, it will heal without leaving a scar. However, if you were to have a cut on your skin now, it may result in a scar, and the older you are, the slower the wound healing process tends to be. This serves as evidence that even stem cells can be negatively affected by aging as well. It is for this reason that we utilize mesenchymal stem cells obtained from the umbilical cord, which are present from day one of life, for anti-aging purposes. By using these young stem cells instead of relying on your own stem cells, which can also be subject to the effects of aging, we can tap into their rejuvenating potential.
STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION FOR ANTI-AGING,
Stem cells are identified by their multiple-efficacy and self-renewal abilities, resulting in the parent cells or mature cells that can repair tissue and keep the characteristics of stem cells to guarantee a long-term continuation of the stem cell population. Stem cells play an important role in organ generation and maintaining homeostasis throughout life, own the ability to migrate long distances and target disease or damaged conditions, exhibit therapeutic genes, and respond to signal that redirect their differentiation into defective cell type. This means that stem cells can utilize for cell replacement as a treatment method aimed at decreasing the effects of aging. Stem cells mechanism of action such as:
Secrete essential substance: Although there are many ways through which stem cells may decrease injury, the main mechanism which is assessed is through essential substance secretion functions.
•Immune Regulatory: In view of the inflammatory nature of most injuries, studies have shown that the important role of mesenchymal stem cells in resolving tissue damage counting on toning down inflammation in particular sites of injury.
•Factor stimulating new blood vessel: New blood vessels generate provided by mesenchymal stem cells can appraise one more supportive effect, since the regenerate of blood supply is fundamental for the repair of damaged tissues.
•Anti-oxidative factors: Some studies have proposed that mesenchymal stem cells also own anti-oxidative features. Mesenchymal stem cells have been observed to create many anti-oxidative substances such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), HGF, IGF, PDGF, and IL-6. Mesenchymal stem cells respectively reduce oxidative damage in culture when fibroblast cells are exposed to oxidative damage-causing environments. (9)
•Differentiation: Mesenchymal Stem Cells have the ability to differentiate into multiple cell types such as bone, cartilage nerve cell, fat cell.
•Fusion: Specific adult stem cells can be used for clinical treatment by launching nuclei or functional genes in aged or degenerating cells. A fusion of stem cells with degenerate cells play an important role in the regeneration of damaged tissue and organ. It’s known that inflammation induces stem cells moving to sites of tissue injury. Moreover, inflammation also enhances the frequency of stem cell fusion.
Types of stem cells
There are four types of stem cells with distinct characteristics and considerations for their use:
Embryonic Stem Cells: While embryonic stem cells have vast potential for regenerative medicine, their usage raises ethical concerns. Obtained from embryos at an early developmental stage, there is ongoing debate about the moral implications of their extraction. Additionally, their application may carry the risk of tumor transformation, which poses a significant challenge in their therapeutic use.
Autologous Stem Cells: These stem cells are sourced from an individual's own body. Although using autologous stem cells appears ideal as there are no ethical dilemmas, they do have limitations. Over time, these cells may experience the aging effects similar to the individual's own cells, reducing their potency for certain therapeutic purposes.
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPS cells): iPS cells are artificially reprogrammed from adult cells, providing an ethical alternative to embryonic stem cells. They offer great potential in regenerative medicine as they can differentiate into various cell types. However, like embryonic stem cells, iPS cells also carry a risk of tumor transformation, which necessitates careful consideration for their safe use.
Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Umbilical Cord: Mesenchymal stem cells obtained from umbilical cord tissue are considered the most promising and practical source. Obtained after childbirth from the umbilical cord, they hold immense potential for regenerative medicine without the concerns of ethical issues or tumor transformation. These cells are exceptionally young and display a remarkable ability to differentiate into various cell types, making them an ideal choice for various medical applications.